These incorporate:Plant gall identification. The rice gall midge (RGM), Orseolia oryzae (Wooden-Mason), is a single of the most harmful insect pests of rice, and it results in major produce losses yearly in Asian international locations.

The progress of resistant rice kinds is deemed as the most powerful and economical technique for retaining produce stability by controlling RGM. Identification of resistance genes will enable in marker-assisted assortment (MAS) to pyramid the resistance genes and produce a strong resistance wide variety from RGM in parts with regular outbreaks. A mitochondrial gene, cytochrome C oxidase I (COI), was utilized to evaluate the genetic range between Thai RGM populations. The phylogenetic tree indicated that the Thai RGM populations had been homogeneously distributed through the country, except for some populations in central and northeast Thailand that almost certainly turned isolated from the most important inhabitants. The reactions of the resistant rice types carrying distinct resistance genes disclosed diverse RGM biotypes in Thailand.

The Thai rice landrace MN62M showed resistance to all RGM populations applied in this examine. We determined a novel genetic locus for resistance to RGM, designated as GM12 , on the small arm of rice chromosome 2.

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The locus was discovered applying linkage investigation in 144 F two plants derived from a cross involving inclined cultivar KDML105 and RGM-resistant cultivar MN62M with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and F 2:3 phenotype. The locus was verified and mapped using SNP and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers encompassing the target chromosomal locale. At plant identi last, the locus was mapped among two flanking markers, RM6800 and S2419160. We recognized a new RGM resistance gene, GM12 , on rice chromosome two in the Thai rice landrace MN62M. This locating yielded SNP and SSR markers that can be utilised in MAS to create cultivars with broad-spectrum resistance to RGM. The new resistance gene supplies essential data for the identification of RGM biotypes in Thailand and Southeast Asia. Keywords. Orseolia oryzae, rice gall midge, restistant rice versions, pest resistance, Thailand. Figures. Background. The rice gall m >Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason) (Diptera: Cec >201.

Ramasamy et al. The larvae of RGM feed on rising strategies ins >2009 Rajamani et al.

No panicle is shaped in the influenced tillers, main to produce losses. Makes an attempt to >201.

Jairin et al. Preceding research have suggested that RGM populations in South and Southeast Asia are isolated (Janique et al. The diverse reactions of resistant rice versions to RGM populations have discovered different gall m > ). The biotypes differ in host selection, relying on the resistance genes of the cultivars. Versions in the repeat location in the mitogenome have been proposed to differentiate the RGM biotypes (Atray et al.

Existence and emergence of new virulent RGM biotypes have been described, and the resistance genes in many RGM-resistant rice kinds were being ineffective towards these kinds of biotypes (Bentur et al. To discover the biotype of Thai populations, a differential set of resistant rice types with recognised resistance genes requirements to be made. Therefore, germplasm screening and identification of resistance genes in Thai rice germplasm are vital for classifying the RGM biotypes in Thai populations. Exploitation of host plant resistance to RGM is an inexpensive and setting-friendly strategy to control the pest (Khush ) d >GM1 can decrease the RGM population in the up coming era. Pyram >GM1 with other resistance genes with unique mechanisms can assist us to acquire a resilient and wide-spectrum resistant rice selection. The past RGM resistance gene, GM11 , was described in 2010. Below, we have described a new wide-spectrum RGM resistance gene in the Thai rice landrace ‘Muey Nawng 62M (MN62M)’ that confers resistance to the RGM populations in Thailand.